|Characteristics of studies included in this meta-analysis|
|Study||National||Study design||Operative interventions||Non-operative interventions||Duration|
|Nikku et al. 1997, 2005 [23,24];||Japan||RCT||MR or MPFL augmentation, or LR.||3 weeks immobilization in cast or orthosis then thigh muscle exercises||7.2y|
|Palmu et al. 2008 ;||Finland||RCT||MPFL repair and in 32 cases, LR.||3 weeks immobilization in cast or orthosis then thigh muscle exercises.||14y|
|Christiansen et al. 2008 ;||Denmark||RCT||MPFL repair||0–2 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–20° motion. Quadriceps exercises and general physiotherapy||2y|
|Sillanpää et al. 2008 ;||Finland||RCT||MR and MPFL repair; R-G procedure; arthroscopic repair of osteochondral fracture||3 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–30° motion. Week 3–6 weeks, 0–90° full motion at 6 weeks. Quadriceps exercises commence immediately||7y|
|Camanho et al. 2008 ;||Brazil||RCT||MPFL repair||3 weeks immobilization then physiotherapy with VMO exercises||Op-3.4; N-Op 3.0|
|Bitar et al. 2012 ;||Brazil||RCT||MPFL reconstruction using patellar tendon||3 weeks immobilization then physiotherapy with quadriceps exercises||2y|
|Petri et al. 2012 ;||Germany||RCT||repair the tear, or lateral release||3 weeks orthosis immobilization 0–30° motion with partial weight-bearing. Week 3–6 weeks, 0–90° motion with progression to pain-adapted full weight-bearing.||2y|
MR: Medial retinaculum; MPFL: Medial patellofemoral ligament; LR: Lateral release; Op: Operative; R-G: Roux–Goldthwaite procedure; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; N-op: Non-operative; VMO: Vastus medialis oblique.
Cheng et al.
Cheng et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2014 9:60 doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-60