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Open Access Research

Factors associated with the survival of prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement

HaiTao Wang123*, YanHong Yao1 and BaoGuo Li123*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Interventional Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China

2 Research Group of Evidence-based Clinical Oncology, Tianjin, China

3 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, China

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Diagnostic Pathology 2014, 9:35  doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-35

Published: 20 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement are rare, and the factors associated with the survival of these patients are yet to be elucidated.

Patients and methods

We collected data on patients who were admitted to our hospital for prostate cancer in the last thirteen years and of those in studies in the literature. The associations of clinical characteristics with survival were evaluated using Cox regression models.

Results

This study included 94 patients (5 admitted to our hospital and 89 from studies in the literature) of prostate cancer with rectal involvement. 11 patients in the group of synchronous rectal involvement at first cancer diagnosis (n = 58) and 23 patients in the group of metachronous diagnosis of rectal involvement (n = 29) died at the latest follow up. The estimated overall survival rate (% ± SE) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 68.3 ± 5.3%, 54.4 ± 7.2%, and 38.1 ± 11.1%, respectively. In the Cox univariate analysis, Asian prostate cancer (p = 0.001) was associated with better survival, while rectal bleeding (p = 0.043), metachronous presentation of development of rectal involvement (p = 0.000), prior hormonal therapy (p = 0.000) and extrarectal metastases (p = 0.054) were associated with poor survival. In multivariate analysis, prior hormone therapy (HR = 14.540, p = 0.000) and rectal bleeding (HR = 2.195, p = 0.041) retained independent poor prognostic values. There were 13 patients survived for more than 3 years, the longest survival time was 96 months. Total pelvic extenteration (TPE) combined with hormonal therapy in 12 hormone-untreated prostate cancer give us six of thirteen long-term survivors for more than 3 years in this series.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that rectal involvement does not necessarily predict a worse outcome when presenting as a previously hormone-untreated disease and that the prognosis was worse when presenting as a hormone relapsed disease. Prior hormone therapy and rectal bleeding were associated independently with a significantly poor overall survival in prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement. TPE combined with hormonal therapy appears to confer better overall survival in hormonally untreated patients.

Virtual slides

The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1604504118106105 webcite.

Keywords:
Prostate cancer; Rectal involvement; Total pelvic extenteration; Prognostic factors