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Increased serum CXCL16 is highly correlated with blood lipids, urine protein and immune reaction in children with active nephrotic syndrome

Junhui Zhen13, Qian Li2, Yanji Zhu2, Xiujun Yao2, Li Wang2, Aihua Zhou12 and Shuzhen Sun124*

Author Affiliations

1 School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China

2 Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatism and Immunology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China

3 Department of Pathology, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, China

4 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jingwu Road 324, Jinan 250021, China

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Diagnostic Pathology 2014, 9:23  doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-23

Published: 24 January 2014



Primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common disease in children. Lipid nephrotoxicity and cellular immune dysfunction are known features of this disease. Recently, CXCL16 was found to participate in inflammation and mediate cellular uptake of lipids. Here, we investigated the involvement of CXCL16 in the occurrence and development of primary NS.


Serum CXCL16, blood lipids and albumin, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and immune cells were detected in 25 children with steroid sensitive NS during their active nephrotic and remissive stages. Twenty healthy children served as the control group.


Levels of serum CXCL16, blood lipids, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells were significantly increased and albumin and NK cell number were significantly decreased in the active status group compared with remissive status and control groups. Correlation analysis showed that serum CXCL16 was positively correlated with blood lipids, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells but negatively correlated with albumin in patients with active NS.


Serum CXCL16 was increased in patients with active NS and correlated with blood lipids, urine protein and immune and inflammation responses, suggesting that CXCL16 may serve as a useful index or biomarker for disease activity in children with nephrotic syndrome.

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Nephrotic syndrome; CXCL16; Proteinuria; Cellular immunity