Extrapelvic endometriosis: a rare entity or an under diagnosed condition?
1 Obstetric - Gynecology Department, ”Thriassio” General Hospital of Athens, George Genimata, 19600 Athens, Greece
2 Surgery Department, “Thriassio” General Hospital of Athens, George Genimata, 19600 Athens, Greece
3 Internal Medicine Department, General Hospital of Syros, Nikiforou Mandilara, 84100 Island of Syros, Greece
4 Pulmonary Department, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Exohi 1100, 57010 Thessaloniki, Greece
5 1st Internal Medicine Department, “Thriassio” General Hospital of Athens, George Genimata, 19600 Athens, Greece
6 Surgery Department (NHS), University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Nea Makri, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
7 Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Nea Makri, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
8 Internal Medicine Department, “Theiageneio” Anticancer Hospital, Alexander Simeonidi 2, 54007 Thessaloniki, Greece
9 Pathology Department, Hospital of Amberg, Mariahilfbergweg 5-7, 92224 Amberg, Germany
10 Pathology Department, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Exohi 1100, 57010 Thessaloniki, Greece
Diagnostic Pathology 2013, 8:194 doi:10.1186/1746-1596-8-194Published: 2 December 2013
Endometriosis is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of normal endometrial mucosa abnormally implanted in locations other than the uterine cavity. Endometriosis can be either endopelvic or extrapelvicdepending on the location of endometrial tissue implantation. Despite the rarity of extrapelvic endometriosis, several cases of endometriosis of the gastrointestinal tract, the urinarytract, the upper and lower respiratory system, the diaphragm, the pleura and the pericardium, as well as abdominal scars loci have been reported in the literature. There are several theories about the pathogenesis and the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Depending on the place of endometrial tissue implantation, endometriosis can be expressed with a wide variety of symptoms. The diagnosis of this entity is neither easy nor routine. Many diagnostic methods clinical and laboratory have been used, but none of them is the golden standard. The multipotent localization of endometriosis in combination with the wide range of its clinical expression should raise the clinical suspicion in every woman with periodic symptoms of extrapelvic organs. Finally, the therapeutic approach of this clinical entity is also correlated with the bulk of endometriosis and the locum that it is found. It varies from simple observation, to surgical treatment and treatment with medication as well as a combination of those.
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