Table 2

Comparison of the immunohistochemical features of kidney CDC and other differential diagnosis
Tumors Clinical features Histopathology Immunohistochemistry
Positive Negative
CDC A male to female ratio of approximately 2:1 with a mean age of occurrence in the sixth decade Angulated tubules or tubulopapillary and glandular structures associated with a desmoplastic stroma; Large irregular tumor cells with abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli CK(AE1/AE3) Vimentin E-cadherin CK7 CD10(weakly) CK20
CCRCC Occurs in adults (average 70 years), often associated with VHL disease. The tumor are typically multi-focal and bilateral Solid, alveolar and acinar patterns, containing a network of small thin-walled blood vessels. The tumor cells have abundant clear cytoplasm with round and uniform nuclei CD10 CK Vimentin E-cadherin CK7 CK20
Renal medullary carcinoma A rare tumor. Occurs in younger cohort mainly in the third decade of life, all the patients had sickle cell trait and hemoglobin abnormalities Poorly differentiated tumor cells arrange as sheets and reticular pattern. The cells are eosinophilic with clear nuclei and prominent nucleoli, often mixed with neutrophils and lymphocyte at the margin CK EMA CEA Vimentin
Urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation or Urothelial adenocarcinoma Less common type of urothelial carcinoma. A tumor with mixed glandular and urothelial differentiation is definited True glandular spaces present, tubular or enteric glands with mucin secretion. Tumor cells have moderate to abundant cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei CK CK7 CK20 (in most adenocarcinoma) Vimentin CD10
NET Rare renal tumor. Occurs in adults (average 60 years), with no sex predilection Trabecular nests or solid nests. Largely polygonal tumor cells with granular clear cytoplasm and round to oval uniform nuclei with rare mitotic figures CK CgA Syn NSE (weakly) Vimentin Desmin
Epithelioid AML More than a half have a history of tuberous sclerosis; both sexes are equally affected, the mean age is 38 years Round to polygonal tumor cells arranged in sheets, with abundant granular cytoplasm and enlarged vasicular nuclei often with prominent nucleoli Melan-A HMB-45 Actin (partly) CK CK7 E-cadherin
Pigmented paraganglioma Rare renal tumor. Most tumor are small, occurs in adults Tumor cells arranged in nests (Zellballen), delicate fibrovascular stroma, large round or polygonal tumor cells with round or oval nuclei CD56 CgA Syn S-100 (sustentacular cells positive) CK CK8/18 Vimentin CD10 Actin
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of kidney Very rare renal tumor Undifferentiated spindle to oval shaped cells, and islands of cartilage S-100 CD99 Vimentin CK EMA E-cadherin

Xu et al.

Xu et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2013 8:119   doi:10.1186/1746-1596-8-119

Open Data