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Comparison of germinal center markers CD10, BCL6 and human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) in follicular lymphomas

Gaia Goteri1*, Guendalina Lucarini2, Antonio Zizzi1, Antonello Costagliola1, Federica Giantomassi1, Daniela Stramazzotti1, Corrado Rubini1 and Pietro Leoni3

Author affiliations

1 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona Hospital, Ancona, Italy

2 Department of Molecular and Clinical Sciences, Histology, Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona, Italy

3 Department of Molecular and Clinical Sciences, Clinic of Hematology, Polytechnic University of Marche Region, Ancona Hospital, Ancona, Italy

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Citation and License

Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:97  doi:10.1186/1746-1596-6-97

Published: 11 October 2011



Recently, human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene protein has been proposed as an adjunctive follicular marker to CD10 and BCL6.


Our aim was to evaluate immunoreactivity for HGAL in 82 cases of follicular lymphomas (FLs) - 67 nodal, 5 cutaneous and 10 transformed - which were all analysed histologically, by immunohistochemistry and PCR.


Immunostaining for HGAL was more frequently positive (97.6%) than that for BCL6 (92.7%) and CD10 (90.2%) in FLs; the cases negative for bcl6 and/or for CD10 were all positive for HGAL, whereas the two cases negative for HGAL were positive with BCL6; no difference in HGAL immunostaining was found among different malignant subtypes or grades.


Therefore, HGAL can be used in the immunostaining of FLs as the most sensitive germinal center (GC)-marker; when applied alone, it would half the immunostaining costs, reserving the use of the other two markers only to HGAL-negative cases.

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