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How much do you know about benign, preneoplastic, non-invasive and invasive neoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder classified according to the 2004 WHO scheme?

Rodolfo Montironi1*, Liang Cheng2, Marina Scarpelli1, Roberta Mazzucchelli1 and Antonio Lopez-Beltran3

Author affiliations

1 Section of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), Ancona, Italy

2 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA

3 Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Cordoba University Medical School, Cordoba, Spain

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Citation and License

Diagnostic Pathology 2011, 6:31  doi:10.1186/1746-1596-6-31

Published: 7 April 2011


The aim of this essay is the self assessment of the level of knowledge of the 2004 WHO classification of bladder neoplasms through a series of MCQs, each associated a short commentary. This paper is directed to all who are involved with the application of this classification at the anticancer research, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic levels, in particular to uropathologists, urologists and oncologists.