Open Access Open Badges Research

Gadd45β expression in chondrosarcoma: A pilot study for diagnostic and biological implications in histological grading

Michihisa Zenmyo1, Akihide Tanimoto2, Harutoshi Sakakima3, Masahiro Yokouchi1, Satoshi Nagano1, Takuya Yamamoto1, Yasuhiro Ishido1, Setsuro Komiya1 and Kosei Ijiri1*

Author affiliations

1 Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan

2 Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan

3 School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Diagnostic Pathology 2010, 5:69  doi:10.1186/1746-1596-5-69

Published: 13 October 2010



Although the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, especially the distinction between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma or low-grade chondrosarcoma and high-grade chondrosarcoma, is pathologically difficult, differential diagnosis is very important because the treatment strategies for these diseases are completely different. The grading system is crucial in predicting biologic behavior and prognosis, however, exact pathological grading is difficult using only routine examinations because the criteria of the grading system are not necessarily definitive. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is an essential molecule for chondrocytes during terminal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of GADD45β in enchondroma, and chondrosarcoma of histological grades I, II, and III, to clarify the diagnostic significance of GADD45β in pathological grading of chondrosarcoma.


Twenty samples (enchondroma = 6, chondrosarcoma grade I = 7, grade II = 6, grade III = 1) were used for immunohistochemical analysis to investigate the expression of GADD45β. Quantitative analysis was performed to compare the number of GADD45β positive cells and pathological grading.


Over 70% of the cells in enchondromas expressed GADD45β. On the other hand, the expression of GADD45β decreased significantly according to the histological grade of chondrosarcoma (grade I: 45%; grade II: 13.8%; and grade III: 3.8%).


The association of GADD45β expression and pathological grading of chondrosarcoma in the present study suggests that the immunohistochemical study of GADD45β may be a specific diagnostic parameter for chondrosarcoma cell differentiation.