Table 2

Significance of positive ANA test in CTD and some non-autoimmune conditions [36]

Useful for diagnosis

Useful for monitoring or prognosis

1) Lupus erythmatosus (LE)

1) Juvenile chronic oligoarticular arthritis


2) Raynaud phenomenon

Discoid LE

Not useful for diagnosis

Subacute cutaneous LE

Neonatal LE

1) Relatives of patients with CTD

Overlap of two or more LE subsets

2) Other autoimmune diseases (e.g., Rheumatoid arthritis, Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune thyroiditis)

Overlap of LE with other CTD

3) Drugs (e.g., procainamide, hydralazine)

2) SS

4) Silicone breast implant patients

Cutaneous SS (morphea)

5) Fibromyalgia

Systemic SS

6) Chronic infections

a) Limited disease

7) Neoplasms

b) Diffuse disease

8) Elderly persons

3) PM/Dermatomyositis

9) Pregnant women

4) Sjögren's syndrome (primary and secondary)

10) Healthy persons

5) Mixed CTD

6) Overlap and undifferentiated CTD

Kumar et al. Diagnostic Pathology 2009 4:1   doi:10.1186/1746-1596-4-1

Open Data